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Foreword

O ur perception of today's threats has changed; and threats of interstate wars have been replaced by new types of threats. However, national defence systems and the international collective security system are still based on the fear of interstate wars. The globalisation process has also shaped the international scene; and thus, it has put the international community's conventional methods of work into question.

Nowadays, civilians are those most affected by the consequences of crisis, such as regional or intrastate wars. Thus, it is ever more important that civilian crisis management be complementary to military crisis management. Civilian crisis management is designed to strengthen: states in transition, regions in crisis, so called failed states on their way towards democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights as well as good governance and strong civil society. Civilian crisis management is designed to enable these states to fully participate in political and economic activities to resolve common security problems.

Finland should further develop its capabilities in order to be able to participate in civilian and military crisis management operations. The role of conflict prevention and civilian crisis management has to be enhanced, if the international community seriously wants to engage itself in preventing crisis from escalating into violent conflicts. By taking responsibility, Finland also strengthens her national security.

It is essential to find and further develop specific national expertise in the field of civilian crisis management where the primary sectors include: protection of human rights, strengthening of the rule of law, democracy, gender equality and civil society as well as, border security, police, civil protection and civilian administration. Furthermore, civil-military cooperation should be enhanced. Finland has to be prepared to participate in international crisis management operations. It is equally important to engage in partnerships with non-governmental organisations both at domestic and field level.

Finland should be prepared for the undertaking of tasks in regions where there already are one or more on-going civilian or military crisis management operations, and where several international and non-governmental organisations are carrying out projects. Hence, cooperation and coordination are highly necessary.

It will be challenging to manage civilian crisis management in its entirety. Activities can range from; monitoring, training and mentoring, to tasks of police and border police forces or to provisional management of justice system, rescue services, infrastructure or public services. Rapid reaction capability is also of growing importance, not only in military crisis management, but also in the field of civilian crisis management.

Civilian crisis management is an essential part of the European Union Security and Defence Policy. The priority areas are Civilian Administration, Police, Rule of Law and Civil Protection as well as Monitoring and support to EU Special Representatives. The EU has also engaged itself to carrying out missions related to Security Sector Reform and Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration as well as election monitoring. In order to prevent security threats from becoming uncontrollable, long-term conflict prevention dealing with root causes of conflicts is also necessary; but its results are not immediately visible and are not shown in news headlines. Here, development policies and human rights policies have a central role.

In addition to doing so in the European Union, Finland should be able to offer her expertise to civilian crisis management activities of other organisations as well. Finland will thus continue to participate actively in the activities of the United Nations, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Council of Europe and other international organisations.

I would like to thank the Civil Society Conflict Prevention Network and the Committee of 100 in Finland for the publication of this very topical book as well as the authors for their contribution. I believe the book will be useful for civil servants, scholars, students and other persons interested in civilian crisis management and its development.


Erkki Tuomioja
Minister for Foreign Affairs of Finland

From Conflicts to Development
– An Introduction to EU Civilian Crisis Management

Foreword

Say Yes to Civilian Crisis Management


Introduction

European Union Civilian Crisis Management: History and Concepts

The First Six Years of Civilian Crisis Management

Narrow and Broad Interpretation of the Priority Areas in Civilian Crisis Management

A Dozen Interpretations of Civilian Crisis Management

European Union Civilian Crisis Management: Current State

Many Missions
— Small Budget

Strengthening Rule of Law in Georgia

Kosovo — Challenge to EU Civilian Crisis Management

Through Training to Cutting Edge Crisis Management

Civilian Crisis Management Training — Useful or Not?

Reflections on Conflicts and Development

Strengths and Weaknesses of EU Civilian Crisis Management

European Union Civilian Crisis Management: Further Development

Civilian Crisis Management in a Multilateral Context

Parlamentarians in Preventing Crises

Nonviolent Peaceforce — Helping Locals in Crisis

Non-governmental Organisation's Know-how in Crisis Management

Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration: New Field for Civilian Crisis Management

Peace through Development Policy

Conflict Sensitivity as a Framework for Developing Civilian Crisis Management

European Union Civilian Crisis Management: Challenges for the Future

Annexes

Acronyms

Contributors

List of References


Sivustoa p´┐Żivitetty 26.9.2006 - toimitus: info@siviilikriisinhallinta.org - toteutus: webmaster@siviilikriisinhallinta.org