Senja Korhonen and Johanna Sumuvuori
ivilian crisis management became a topic in Finland after the tsunami catastrophe in Southeast Asia in December 2004. The natural disaster and capabilities needed for reconstruction were brought up in many television programmes and leading articles in newspapers. At the same time, both political parties and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) started making demands for more capabilities so that effectiveness in civilian crisis management could be increased.
However, the public discussion on civilian crisis management showed that the undefined concept of civilian crisis management caused confusion. Some questions were thus raised: What does civilian crisis management actually mean? What activities does it include? Many considered the work carried out by relief and rescue teams in Southeast Asia as civilian crisis management. On the other hand, NGOs that lobby for civilian crisis management criticised the way the concept was narrowed to refer only to relief and rescue work.
The concept of civilian crisis management can indeed be understood in many ways. It has sometimes been used to refer to management of crises that hit civilians; in other words, management of "civilian crises". The peace movement and NGOs working in the field of civilian crisis management have regarded the term as a reference to civilians who carry out crisis management or conflict prevention activities as opposed to crisis management tasks undertaken by military personnel. The European Union has also referred to crisis management carried out by civilians.
There was a real need for this book the concept and status of civilian crisis management needed clarification. The articles in the book analyse the history, problems and future challenges of the EU civilian crisis management since the concept of civilian crisis management was created in the European Union. A space is also given to an analysis on how the concept has been understood in Finland. The contributors, who have expertise in civilian crisis management, work in the General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union, Finnish state institutions, and NGOs.
The book consists in three thematic parts. In the first part, Anna Halonen gives an overview of the history of the EU civilian crisis management. Based on his survey, Mikaeli Langinvainio presents a clarifying analysis on how Finnish experts understand the concept of civilian crisis management.
The second part of the book looks at the current state of the EU civilian crisis management. Senja Korhonen and Markus Peltola give an illustrative overview of on-going and completed civilian crisis management missions and present the budget framework for missions. Tiina Jortikka-Laitinen discusses in more detail the outcome of a terminated mission the first EU rule of law mission EUJUST THEMIS deployed in Georgia in 2004–2005. Reflecting upon her experiences as municipal administrator in Kosovo in 1999–2001, HelinÃ¤ Kokkarinen raises issues that will have importance for the EU's eventual civilian crisis management mission in Kosovo, after the negotiations on future status have been brought to conclusion.
An overview of the missions is followed by Antti Häikiö's article on civilian crisis management training. He also makes concrete proposals for improving the training. Based on their experience from training courses, Leena Schmidt and Kalle Sysikaski analyse the usefulness of training with regard to practical work in missions. To conclude the second part, Mika-Markus Leinonen gives a thorough analysis on the strengths and weaknesses of civilian crisis management from a politico-institutional viewpoint.
The last part of the book discusses the future of civilian crisis management viewed from different perspectives. Kalevi Suomela starts by giving an overview of the international environment in which the EU carries out its civilian crisis management activities. This is followed by two articles on the role of different actors in civilian crisis management. Laura Lodenius presents two projects engaging Finnish parliamentarians in democracy dialogue with their colleagues in Afghanistan and Tanzania. Alessandro Rossi gives an example of a NGO's project in Sri Lanka where international civilians assist locals in managing crises. As a follow-up to this article, Anne Palm gives a comprehensive list of tasks NGOs can carry out in pre- and post-crisis situations as well as during a crisis.
The EU is extending its competence into new areas among which disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration are presented by Katrin Lindén and Oskari Eronen. Furthermore, there is a growing need for more coherence between the EU's short-term and long-term policies. Reflecting on this, Johanna Sumuvuori looks at the interface between civilian crisis management and development cooperation. Anisa Doty presents the notion of conflict sensitivity that could be used as a framework for civilian crisis management activities, the aim of which should be avoiding negative impacts, and achieving the excellence of "doing good". The book concludes with an analysis by Kristiina Rintakoski on the future challenges of the EU civilian crisis management, and proposals on how it could be further developed.
Indeed, the EU civilian crisis management is being rapidly developed, and its role as a tool under the European Security and Defence Policy has become more important. There are however many areas in which further development is needed; e.g. cooperation between the Council of the European Union and the European Commission, budget for civilian crisis management, recruitment and training of experts, and cooperation between the EU and other actors, namely United Nations and NGOs.
Cooperation between various actors both at national and EU level is necessary. To this end, we want to raise awareness about the EU civilian crisis management and enable increasing dialogue between various actors. The Finnish Ministries for Foreign Affairs and of the Interior have given the book their valuable contribution, and cooperate closely with NGOs; which as such can be seen as an excellent step in the development of Finnish expertise in civilian crisis management. We would thus hope that the book, which has now been translated into English, would give an impetus for similar development in other European countries as well.
The arguments presented in the articles are naturally those of individual contributors, not of the institutions they represent.